Al-rawi, Rafal has completed his M. B. Ch. B. in 1999 and F.I.C.PATH in 2006 (University of Almustanseria, Baghdad, Iraq). His thesis title was: Expression of β -HCG and its pathological aspects in breast tumors. Currently, he is Assistant Professor at the Department of Pathology (Clinical Analysis), College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq since 2012. He published 12 scientific papers. He received more than 25 acknowledgments and outstanding awards.
Tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer remain important causes of death worldwide. The incidence of TB in Iraq is 56 per 100 000 population per year with 25 out of the 56 being infectious cases. Sputum cytological examination followed by sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are useful ways for identifying and diagnosis tuberculosis and other pulmonary associated lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of sputum cytology and smears for AFB in diagnosis of TB in patients living in Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. A total of 95 patients with signs and symptoms suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis were included in this study. Results showed that age of the patients included in this study ranged from 11 to 92 years and they were 64% males. Fifty percent (50%) of sputum smears were positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and 61% were suggestive positive for tuberculosis by sputum cytological examination. The results of cytological investigation showed that 78% had predominantly chronic inflammatory cells, 22% had mixed inflammatory cells, 24% of the patients had metaplastic squamous cells, 43% showed necrotic background and 7% had red blood cells. On the other hand, only 1% of the cases had dysplastic cells (premalignant cells) and none of the smears showed granulomatous, giant or malignant cells. It was concluded that sputum cytological examinations followed by sputum smears for AFB are useful ways for diagnosis TB. It is recommended that using the combination of sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and sputum cytological examination resulted in a significantly increased positivity rate in diagnosis of lung lesions.
Background: Uterine smooth muscle tumors constitute a spectrum of neoplasms. Usually diagnosis of leiomyomas (LMs) is straight forwards; however atypical leiomyomas (ALMs), and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs) have overlapping features and need to be distinguished from leiomyosarcoma. Aim: To evaluate progesterone receptor (PR), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and galectin-3 expression in LMs, ALMs, STUMPs, and leiomyosarcomas and to assess their possible role in differentiating those tumors. Materials: Immunoexpression of EGF-R, PR and galectin-3 were studied in 44 cases of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Tissue samples from 20 LMs, 9 ALMs, 5 STUMP and 10 leiomyosarcoma cases were studied. Semiquantitative score was used to evaluate immunohistochemical staining. Results: EGF-R overexpression was detected in leimyosarcomas compared to lack of or reduced EGF-R expression in the non-sarcomatous group (LMs, ALMs and STUMPs) with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). On the contrary, there was weak or negative PR staining in leiomyosarcom as compared to intense PR expression in the non-sarcomatous group with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). Regarding galectin-3, it was downregulated in leiomyosarcomas compared to the non-sarcomatous group with a significant difference (p < 0.01). Correlation analysis revealed negative correlation between EGF-R and PR expression with significant statistical results. While correlation of galectin-3 with EGF-R and PR showed insignificant statistical results. Conclusion: Immunoexpression of EGF-R, PR and galectin-3 could be of help in differentiating challenging cases of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Further studies are recommended to investigate interactions between EGF-R, PR and galectin-3 and to plan new therapeutic strategies.